Diabetes has become known as a major comorbid (occurring at the same time) condition for COVID-19 severity. This is an observational study with people with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 in 53 French centers from March 10th-31st, 2020. The measured outcome combined tracheal intubation for ventilation and/or death within 7 days of hospital admission. BMI was positively and independently associated with the measured outcome.
Diabetes is known to worsen the health outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Specifically, it increases the risk of death and the need for intensive care. Data regarding diabetes characteristics in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, however, are still lacking. An investigation into the relationship between diabetes-related phenotypes and COVID-19 severity is imperative.
This study was launched in volunteering French hospitals with COVID-19 patients with diabetes. It aimed to describe the expressions of diabetes and prognosis (course of the disease) of these patients.
There were a total of 1317 participants. 88.5% of the cases had type 2 diabetes, while 3% had type 1 and 5.4% had other conditions causing diabetes. Of these participants, 382 required intubation and/or died. 410 patients required intensive care within 7 days of being admitted, 267 of whom needed intubation for ventilation. On day 7, 140 patients died while 237 were discharged. The study found BMI to be the only factor independently associated with an outcome of intubation and/or death. Age, a history of blood vessel complications and sleep apnea were also found to be associated with an increased risk of death on day 7 of the study.
BMI turned out to be the only variable (before admission) independently associated with the measured outcome, which is mainly driven by tracheal intubation. Many of the patients suffered from respiratory symptoms (i.e., coughing). Some participants suffered from digestive disorders (i.e., Hemorrhoids). People with diabetes may also need the management of metabolic disorders when suffering from COVID-19. It is worth noting that this study focuses only on short-term outcomes, so the possibility that diabetes characteristics could be associated with severe, long-term COVID-19 outcomes can not be excluded.