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dcyphr | Diabetic patients with COVID-19 infection are at higher risk of ICU admission and poor short-term outcome

Abstract

Goal is to assess the risk of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission for patients with diabetes and COVID-19. After analyzing existing datasets, we found that diabetic patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of ICU admission, and are more likely to die. 


Introduction

It's well known that diabetes patients are at higher risk of infection from various diseases, including COVID-19. Recent investigations have found that diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common comorbidities. Separate studies concluded that having diabetes makes it more likely you'll die of COVID-19 infection. This paper will review and analyze the data to determine the risk of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and the risk of death for diabetes patients with COVID-19 infection.

Study Design and Eligibility

For each study we extracted the number of patients, mean age, male gender, prevalence of  diabetes mellitus, the number of diabetic subjects admitted or not to the ICU, as well as the number of diabetic survivors/deaths. We pulled this data from MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science. We only used data in English. 

Out of 135 papers relevant to this topic, we pulled the data from 4 to determine if patients with diabetes are at higher risk of going to the ICU after contracting COVID-19. Another 4 were used to determine if patients with diabetes are at higher risk of dying with COVID-19. 

Results

Risk of ICU admission: Out of 1382 patients, patients with diabetes were 2.79 times more likely to be admitted to the ICU.

Mortality risk: Out of 471 patients, patients with diabetes were 3.21 times more likely to die while having COVID-19. 

Discussion

This paper did not attempt to show that diabetes increases the risk of infection of COVID-19, but other papers are currently studying that. We were not able to examine different types of diabetes, or how they were treated in the ICU. Diabetic patients should be considered to be at higher risk of complications when they're infected with COVID-19. 

Limitations 

1. Very few studies separated patients by survivors and non-survivors as well as ICU vs non-ICU patients. It would strengthen the results to have more patient data. 

2. We didn't compare the outcomes of patients with diabetes based on different treatments. 

Conclusion

Our analysis suggests that diabetic patients with COVID-19 infection have an higher risk to be admitted to the ICU and show an higher mortality risk during the disease.