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dcyphr | Evolutionary Biology and Ecology
Evolutionary Biology and Ecology

Research concerning networks of living organisms and evolutionary processes. Includes articles from Yale BIOL 104 class.

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    dcyphr-d by Janet Hsu on 2020-06-18
    AbstractThe relationship between biodiversity and latitude is controversial. Research that includes immigration and not just origin or extinction support the “out of the tropics” model. This model indicates that taxa prefer to originate from the tropics. Then, they migrate to the poles while remaining in the tropics. Thus, the tropics are a cradle and a museum.IntroductionThe latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) is the phenomenon that as one moves from the poles to the equator (tropics), there i...
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    dcyphr-d by Oby Uche on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Tree growth was investigated in Isle Royale National Park in Michigan to reveal the influence of herbivores and carnivores on plants in an intimately linked food chain. Plant growth rates were regulated by the amount of certain types of animals present (moose and wolves), and the plants only responded to annual changes in primary productivity when they were no longer under pressure from moose. The study revealed top-down control in the Isle Royale ecosystem.Background The top-down...
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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    Abstract     Studies show that microplastic has a negative impact on the wildlife. Thus the presence of microplastic in marine species that humans consume presents a health risk to humans. This study reviews the potential health effects of microplastic in marine species on human food security and human health. Knowledge on this subject is very limited and this study pushes the boundary of our knowledge. Additional research in this area is needed to ensure human health and food security. Backgrou...
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    dcyphr-d by Oby Uche on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Carotenoids are colored compounds produced by plants, fungi, and microorganisms. Pea aphids can appear in a red or green color, and the carotenoid torulene occurs only in red pea aphids. The aphid genome encodes multiple enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis. These genes are derived from fungal genes, which have been integrated into the aphid genome and duplicated. A mutation of a certain region in the red aphid genome that encodes a single carotenoid desaturase results in a loss of fo...
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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    Abstract     Microplastics (MPs) are of great environmental and health concern. They have been found in oceans, rivers, sediments, sewages, soil, and table salt. This study looks at the effect of MPs on mammalian systems. The tissue distribution, accumulation, and tissue specific health risk of MPs in mice were tested. This study shows that MPs accumulate in the kidneys, liver, and gut. The accumulation is dependent upon the MP’s size. The tissues showed biomarkers that suggested disturbances of...
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    dcyphr-d by Oby Uche on 2020-06-18
    Abstract The theory of historical contingency is that repeated occurrences of an evolutionary event result in dramatically different outcomes. This theory was tested on the same four types of anolis species (ecomorphs) on four different islands in the Greater Antilles. The similar morphologies and niches of the lizards among the islands can be explained by one of two hypotheses: all ecomorphs originated from a common ancestor on one island and then dispersed to different islands, or that ther...
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    dcyphr-d by Janet Hsu on 2020-06-18
    AbstractResearchers conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 160 human severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomes. They found three major variants of the virus: A, B, and C. The A variant represents the ancestral type with the bat coronavirus as the outgroup. The B variant is common in East Asia. But, this variant often mutates when it leaves East Asia. Thus, genetic variation may be lost for the B type of virus outside of Asia. There may also be immunological or environmen...
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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Plastic pollution in the aquatic environment poses an enormous impact on wildlife and human beings. Currently, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a main source of microplastic and nanoplastic in the water. WWTPs do no account for plastic removal in their design. This study reviews possible membrane technologies that can be applied to WWTPs to filter microplastic smaller than 100 nanometers. From this literature analysis, the researchers discovered the removal of microplastics wit...
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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    Abstract Purpose: The discussion of human microplastic exposure by contaminated seafood. Recent Findings: Shellfish pose a potential exposure risk and it is presumed to be dependent on the dose, polymer type, size, surface chemistry, and hydrophobicity of the plastic polymer. Summary: Human activity has led to global use and pollution of plastic. Aquatic life ingested this plastic and there is evidence emerging that it poses a toxic threat towards aquatic life and the humans that consume it. The...
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    dcyphr-d by Janet Hsu on 2020-06-18
    AbstractThe researchers studied wild-type and Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with off-cycle circadian rhythms. The plants that had a matching circadian clock to the light-dark environment cycles had increased growth and survival. For example, these plants fixed more carbon and had more chlorophyll.IntroductionCircadian clocks are the body's biological clock that works to match external light-dark cycles. Circadian clocks give an advantage to organisms. In plants, circadian clock rhythm genes regul...