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dcyphr | Neuroscience
Neuroscience

Research investigating the brain and the nervous system.

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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    Abstract       Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) show promise to restore lost sensory or motor function. Similarly, they offer a potential treatment for a variety of neurological disorders. According to the researchers, BMI's have not been utilized by the populus. This is due to limitations in their physical design and ability to transmit information. This paper details Neuralinks first attempt at scalable high-bandwidth BMI. The researchers have built an array that uses small threads with at most ...
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    dcyphr-d by Akaash Saraf on 2020-06-18
    Abstract:A certain chemical family known as flavonoids activate pathways that combat oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is the phenomenon in which an imbalance in oxidants and antioxidants leads to programmed cell death. The pathways that are activated are the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and Nrf2. It is important to note that not all flavonoids are activators of these two pathways. NDGA, a chemical similar to flavonoids, was chosen in this study due to its strong ability to activate the Nrf2 ...
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    dcyphr-d by Michael Rogan on 2020-06-18
    AbstractPain comes from sensory input as well as situational context from the brain. Research has associated pain with neuronal oscillations (brain waves) at different frequencies. This paper looks to compile information on how the different frequencies of these oscillations and prediction come together to make the experience of pain. Trends        In chronic pain, the brains ability to consider both the physical sensation and emotional/contextual information is interrupted. The large range of f...
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    dcyphr-d by Akaash Saraf on 2020-06-18
    Abstract:Oxidative stress can lead to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), among other disorders. Oxidative stress is when there is a buildup of highly reactive free-radicals in the body. These free-radicals can lead to cell death through apoptosis. Carnosic Acid (CA) is a chemical found in rosemary and sage that can combat oxidative stress in its active form. The active form of CA stimulates the Nrf2/Keap1 pathway. The Nrf2/Keap1 pathway produces antioxidants which can neutralize the free radicals which, ...
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    dcyphr-d by Michael Rogan on 2020-06-18
    Abstract     Recent brain imaging studies suggest that the insula may become a future focus of research because of its use in understanding the structure and function of the brain as well as its use in clinical research. This paper looks to summarize the insula on a structural and cellular level. The researchers then discuss how the insula’s involvement in psychiatric and neurological disorders may be underestimated. They then suggest how research on the insula can be done in the future.Introduc...
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    dcyphr-d by Christina Hijiya on 2020-06-18
    AbstractMucosal barrier immunity in the intestine is essential for maintaining the commensal microflora (friendly gut bacteria) and fighting bacterial infection. Previously, immune and epithelial cells were thought to maintain this balance between harboring the commensal microflora and fighting infection. In this study, the researchers show that the enteric nervous system (ENS), or neurons in the gastrointestinal tract, plays an important role in this balance. The researchers found that the ENS ...
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    dcyphr-d by Michael Rogan on 2020-06-18
    AbstractScientists consider the process of long-term potentiation (LTP) as one of the main things controlling memory formation. LTP takes two neurons that fire together and strengthens the relationship between them. Evidence shows that transcription factor CREB causes changes in the cell. This makes that neuron’s synapse more reactive. It is unclear if CREB and LTP happen together or are separate processes.IntroductionThe Role of the Transcription Factor CREB in Memory           Interest in CREB...
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    dcyphr-d by Michael Rogan on 2020-06-18
    SummaryWorking memory is the immediate memory of outside information, such as listening to someone speak or performing a task. It is a very conscious form of memory and is characterized by non-stop neuron spikes. Researchers analyzed the local field potential in the prefrontal cortex in monkeys’ brains during a task. Gamma and beta oscillations are types of brain waves. Both of these waves appeared during the tasks in neurons that were encoding or decoding memory to do the task. They showed up a...
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    dcyphr-d by Michael Rogan on 2020-06-18
    Abstract   Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adults. Research shows that ADHD patients have symptoms of abnormal circadian rhythms. A person’s circadian rhythm is how their body changes as night and day pass. In other words, it is their sleep-wake cycle. A mutation in a protein involved in this cycle, per1b, causes zebrafish to display ADHD-like symptoms. These symptoms include hyperactivity, bad impulse control, decreas...
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    dcyphr-d by Daniel Amuedo on 2020-06-18
    AbstractThe continuous improvement of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) displays incredible potential. This study reviews modern techniques, their respective sensors, and their commercial viability. This review of the BCI technologies and their sensors could be of use in demonstrating the importance of brain machine interfaces. Introduction A Brain Computer Interface (BCI) outfit BCI research aims to augment or repair human sensory motor or cognitive abilities with the development of advanced tech...